Front Squat

Front squats are an awesome squat variation. Because the bar is in front of you, they train your body differently than back squats do.

You maintain a more vertical torso throughout the movement which really works your upper back. This is a more quad-dominant exercise, too. Back squats put more emphasis on your hips, hamstrings and lower back. One version isn’t necessarily better than the other.

If you’re looking to train in the clean and the snatch, front squats more closely mimic those movements than back squats.

If you have adequate wrist mobility, you can hold the bar in your fingers. If not, that’s okay, you can cross your arms over each other. Either way, the bar actually rests in the natural groove between your shoulder and collarbone. Real talk: having the bar there takes some getting used to. It’s not the most comfortable thing at first.

The actual movement is the same regardless how you hold the bar in a front squat. Brace your core and unrack the weight. Take a couple steps away from the rack. Your feet will be about shoulder width apart, perhaps a bit wider. The exact width will vary from person to person. Find a comfortable stance and go with it.

Keeping your core tight, descend by bending at the hips and knees until your thigh is parallel (or slightly below parallel) to the floor. Drive through your midfoot to ascend back to the starting position. Repeat for reps. If you’re only doing a couple, you may be able to remain braced without taking another breath until you’re done. If you’re doing more than a few, you exhale a bit as you ascend. Inhale at the top. You still want to ensure you keep your core tight throughout the set.

More than likely you’ll use a lighter load for front squats than back squats. You can add them to your leg training in place of back squats or, if you’re really ambitious, in addition to them.


10 Best Things About Being an Older Lifter

If you’re 30+ years old, there are tons of things to look forward to in your training.

  I’m not saying I’m old, by any means. I’m 41 and I feel great. I made it past those years where guys can’t resist doing dumb shit without doing any real permanent damage to myself. So that’s good.

  If you’re in your 30s, 40s, or above here are some of the things you can enjoy about being “mature” as you train. If you’re younger and still in what I’ll affectionately call “the meathead years”, this is what you can look forward to.

  1. “How much do you bench?” You no longer put all your self esteem in your one-rep max on the bench press. Nor do you care about anyone else’s. You can concentrate on more meaningful metrics.
  2. All that grownup responsibility makes you better at time management. You know you can get in all the training you need in a few hours a week. No more just hanging out at the gym for hours just ‘cause.
  3. Vegetables! At some point when you weren’t looking, they started tasting better. Now you can enjoy them on the regular, and not just as a slice of lettuce on top of your burger. You have a better understanding of how to be healthy overall.
  4. Knowledge. By now, you have a good handle on what types of training works better for you. Instead of hopping on the latest fad you hear about every few weeks, you understand the fundamentals that drive continued progress.
  5. Focus. You can finally focus for more than 30 seconds at a time without your hormones turning your head to check someone out.
  6. Patience. After you’ve been dinged up a few times you learn to listen to your body. You understand that “no pain, no gain” isn’t an effective long-term strategy. The long game is about making sure you’re able to train for years to come, not recklessly pushing for a single great workout.
  7. Appreciation. You value all the things training can give you. Besides keeping you active and strong, it’s a mental break from the stress of real life.
  8. Bigger Picture. You realize that fitness encompasses more than just lifting the most weight. Your training allows you to be more effective in your life outside the gym.
  9. Setting an example. Finally now you can be the wise old guy that the young kids at the gym may or may not roll their eyes at.
  10. You still got it! It’s one thing to be in the best shape of your life at 19. It’s a lot more impressive when you’re still in shape over 20 years later.

Bonus: Old man strength. It’s real and now you get to be the one to use it!

So if you’re entering your silverback phase, it doesn’t have to mean you’re automatically over the hill. Here’s to many more years of making gains.


Build Bigger Stronger Arms

The end of summer may mean it’s time to cover up the “guns” in your sleeves but it also means it’s about time to start building them back up.

Do you want bigger, stronger, more defined arms? Here’s how.

When you think of big arms, you probably think of biceps. As you can see in the illustration below, the triceps are also going to make a good part of the the arm mass. In fact, you want to train them in about the same volume.

Simply put, your biceps’ job is to contract to bend your elbow to move your forearm towards the upper arm. Your triceps flex to extend the elbow to move your forearm away from the upper arm.


The bi- prefix indicates there are two heads to the muscle: a long head and a short head. Picture your arm hanging straight down at your side. Your biceps will be facing forward. The short head of your biceps will be closer to your torso. The long head will be farther from your torso.


You can probably guess what the tri- prefix means for the back of your arm. That’s it, there are three heads: the lateral, long, and medial. It’s easier to see in an image. [photo] Together they form a shape resembling a horseshoe. Look at the body from the back with the arms hanging straight down. The long head starts around the back of the shoulder/armpit area. The lateral head (sometimes called the short head) is on the outside, farther from the torso. The medial head is on the inside, but closer to the elbow than the others.


Biceps Training

The most common way you’ll see people training biceps is through curls. Does it work? Yes. But the best way to get your muscles to grow is to get stronger by lifting more weight over time. Biceps curls are an isolation exercise, which means they focus solely on one muscle group. That’s the good part. You’ll see people doing all kinds of variations of curls: standing, sitting, concentration, alternating, hammer, spider, incline, decline, reverse-grip. Of course there are all kinds of weight machines as well. All that’s cool.

However, the downside of isolation exercises is that you really can’t use that much weight when compared to compound exercise. Pull-ups and chin-ups are compound movements that train the back and biceps. Rows are great also. You could build an impressive set of biceps just by focusing on these alone. This is because you’ll be lifting your body, which obviously is a lot heavier than the dumbbells you’d use for curls. Once you get to the point where you can tack on extra iron for your chin-ups, you’ll be moving some impressive weights. And that is the key to getting strong and building muscle.

The main emphasis should be on getting stronger at the compound movements. Try doing 3-5 sets of 5-10 repetitions, with 1-3 minutes of rest once or twice a week. I know that’s a big range of reps. You’ll find some people will respond better to sets with closer to 5 reps while others will need closer to 10. The main key will be focusing on getting stronger.

A great way to make this happen is to gradually increase the number of reps or sets. If you build your way from 3 sets of 5 reps to 3 sets of 7 reps, you’ve gotten stronger. Add on 5-10 lbs. and go back to 3 sets of 5 reps. Build your way up and repeat the process.

(It’s a given that you’re using good form, right?  Right? )

This is going to improve your gains far more efficiently than doing 8 different versions of curls. I’m not against curls, or isolation movements in general. You get the most efficient gains from compound movements. Compounds are like your main dishes. Isolations are the side orders. When you do your isolation lifts, you want to ensure you’re using the muscles and not momentum to move the weight. I recommend 2-3 sets of 5-12 repetitions.

If you want to deep dive into your isolation lifts, the short head of the biceps is emphasized when the arm is in front of the body in exercises like preacher curls and concentration curls. To focus more on the long head, have your upper arm slightly behind your body and try incline dumbbell curls and hammer curls.

Triceps Training

When working on arms, we tend to overemphasize training the biceps, often to the neglect of the triceps. The truth is the triceps are just as important, if not more, when it comes to growing impressive guns.

Similar to the biceps, you’ll often see people in the gym doing a bunch of isolation movements. There are extensions, cable extensions, overhead extensions, (the ominous-sounding) skull crushers, weight machines and on and on. Again, they do work but they’re not going to be the most efficient method for you.

Compound lifts are your friends! Pressing exercises like bench press (particularly close-grip bench), overhead press, dips, even pushups are great ways to develop your triceps. You don’t have to do every exercise in order to make gains. Pick a couple compound exercises and work on building your strength at those. Use a similar sets and reps scheme as for the upper body pulls.

Toss in some isolation work as a complement afterwards. Again, 2-3 sets of 5-12 once or twice is plenty. You can put emphasis on the lateral head with triceps exercises where your arms are by your sides and you’re using an overhand (palms down) grip (e.g. dips). To focus on growing the medial head, your arms will be at your sides but you’ll use an underhand grip (e.g. reverse-grip press downs). Build the lateral head by choosing exercises where your arms are overhead (e.g. skull crushers or overhead extensions).

Rest and Recovery

In order to get the most out of your time in the gym, you want to do the right things outside of the gym. That means getting plenty of rest. You work the muscles in the gym but they recover and grow only if you allow sufficient time between workouts. Eat enough food, particularly protein, to support your gains, but not so much that you get fluffy.

Now you’re all set to make some great arm gains! The only thing left to do is put in the work.

Hope this helps. Any questions or comments, let me know.

Best Shoulder Exercises

Best Shoulder Exercises

Most of us know how training biceps and triceps builds impressive arms and helps us look better from a profile perspective. We know that a well-defined chest makes us look better from the front. But a set of well-developed shoulders helps with both.

Let’s talk about how to build up this often neglected body part.

First a little anatomy. There are three main parts to the shoulder (deltoid or delt) from a muscle standpoint. There’s the front (anterior), middle (medial), and rear (posterior) parts of the shoulder. Under these are the smaller, stabilizing muscles commonly known as your rotator cuff muscles.

They all work together for the functions of the shoulder: basically to rotate the upper arm, to move the arm away and towards the side of the body, to move the arm laterally from front to back.

From a joint standpoint, the shoulder is kind of amazing. It has a tremendous range of motion, more than any of our other joints. This flexibility is both a strength and a weakness. We’re able to use our arms in myriad ways but the shoulder is also particularly vulnerable to injury. It’s vital to keep this in mind as we discuss how to train.

The most basic shoulder lift you can do is the Press. The cool thing is there are a bunch of ways to do this lift. Try them out and see which one that suits you best. You’ll probably find that over time you’ll get better results from switching up after a while.

Standing Press

With the standing barbell press , you’ll start with the bar around the height of your collar bone. Grip the bar with your hands a little bit wider than shoulder-width. The exact position will depend on the individual. You want to be comfortable, with your forearms approximately perpendicular to the ground.

Unrack the bar, brace your core and keep your lower body tight. You want a solid foundation as you raise the weight above your head. Now is not the time for wobbly legs and soft abs. Press the bar in straight path above your head. The path should be right in front of your face. Move your head back to avoid hitting yourself… or you know, learn the hard way. Once the bar is past your head, you bring your head forward again. Extend your arms fully. The weight should be directly over your center of mass. If it isn’t, you’ll be able to tell ‘cause it will be pulling your forward or backward. Lower the weight back to the starting position under control. That’s one repetition. In terms of breathing, you inhale and brace at the start, when you unrack the bar. Keep your core tight (as if you’re expecting to get punched in the gut). Exhale slightly at the top of the movement. Don’t let all your air out or your core will relax too much. You can fully exhale at the bottom of the movement.

This is a great exercise for shoulder strength and size development. In fact, it’s a really good total body exercise since your entire body works to maintain your position.

The standing dumbbell press is very similar. It works the same muscles. Benefits of using dumbbells are they allow for a greater range of motion and each arm has to work independently. This means you’ll have to use less weight and it helps prevent or address any muscle imbalances. Usually one arm is more dominant.

You will have to raise the weights to the starting position, shoulder height. Begin with the dumbbells at your sides. For lower weights you’ll be able to curl them up to your shoulders to start the press. Once you’ve built up to heavier loads, that won’t be the case. A good way to get them from waist level to the starting position is to start with the dumbbells at your sides. Slightly bend your knees and hips for a quick moment. Then explosively extend your hips and knees to generate momentum to help you curl the weights to shoulder height.

Seated Press

The seated barbell press gives you more back support, which means you should be able to press more weight. You still want to brace your core and press your feet hard into the ground. When using a barbell here, a main difference is the rack position is near the top of the movement, so you unrack, lower the weight to your collar level and then the lift begins.

The dumbbell variation of the seated press is slightly tricky. You may be able to just lift the weights to your shoulders early on. Once again, when you get to heavier dumbbells you’ll need to use momentum. Start standing with the dumbbells at your sides. As you carefully sit down, rest the dumbbells to the top of your knees (the dumbbells are still in your hands), right where your quads and knees meet. One leg at a time, kick your knee up to raise that dumbbell to shoulder height. Then use the other knee to help you raise the corresponding dumbbell to the starting position. When your set is over, lower the weights under control and raise your knees to gently meet them. This all sounds way more complicated than it actually is. Do it a couple times and I’m sure you’ll figure it out.

There are also seated shoulder press machines you can use. The benefit is they’re easier to use. The drawback is they’re not as effective at training the the smaller stabilizer muscles in the shoulder as free weights.

The press is the lift that will give you the most shoulder strength and size. If you’re a guy, once you get to the point where you can overhead press a weight equivalent to your body weight, your shoulders will be impressive. For women, getting to the equivalent of half your body weight will have your shoulders looking right.

The exact number of sets and repetitions will vary according to the individual, but 2-5 sets of 5-10 reps is a good place to start. Take 1-2 minutes rest between sets. However, start on the low end of each and gradually increase the volume. Remember though, the main driver is going to be progressive overload. If you go from 5 sets of 5 repetitions at 95 pounds to 5×5 at 145, you’ll really see the difference.

Dumbbell Lateral Raises

This is probably the next best exercise for building up your shoulders. Dumbbell lateral raises really work your lateral delt hard. The standing and seated versions are pretty similar. You may find the seated version feels more stable or you may be more comfortable standing. Either way, make sure you keep your core braced and your spine tall.

Begin with the dumbbells at your sides. With only a slight bend in your elbow, raise the weights away from your sides in a controlled fashion. Avoid using excessive momentum. Once your arms are about parallel to the ground, pause for a beat and lower the weights under control back to the starting position. Start with really light weights. You don’t need to lift really heavy in order to get results from this exercise.

The most common mistake with lateral raise is using momentum to raise the weights. Right behind that is using too much of a shrug to the movement. If you feel your traps working more than your delts, this means you. The fix for this is to focus on keeping your shoulder blades down and close together. You’ll probably have to use lighter dumbbells. That’s okay because now you’re working the muscles you want to be.

Besides dumbbells, you can do this lift using your gym’s lat raise resistance machines, or cable machines, or even resistance bands.

I recommend 2-3 sets of 8-15 repetitions with about 30-60 seconds rest between sets.

Rear Delts

The rear delts are the most neglected of the big three shoulder muscles. Developing them will help give your shoulders a fully rounded look. It will also help fight imbalances that accentuate bad posture and can lead to injury. There’s probably a greater emphasis on upper body pushing training than upper body pulls. This and the exercise that follow will help you balance that.

The Dumbbell Reverse Fly (a.k.a. Bent-over rear delt fly) is a great way to train the posterior delts.

Start with a dumbbell in each hand. Your feet should be about shoulder width apart. Keep your knees “soft”, not locked but not too bent either. Hinge forward at the waist until your torso is almost parallel to the ground. Of course you know by now to keep that core braced. Now the weights should be hanging straight down with your palms facing each other. With only a slight bend in your elbows, raise the weights under control to the side until your elbows are in line with your shoulders. (At the top you’ll look like you’re pretending to be an airplane!) Lower the weights back to the starting position.

Avoid bouncing or using momentum to move the weight. This is another exercise you’ll use light resistance.

There are a few variations you can try. You can do rear delt flys while seated. Or you can lie chest down on an incline bench. This is helpful if you find you’re prone to rocking or bouncing during the movement. And of course, you can use cable machines or resistance bands.

In terms of volume, I like 2-3 sets of 10-20 reps with 30-60 seconds between sets.

Face Pulls

Face pulls are another great exercise to bulletproof your shoulders. They also work your rear delts. You’ll need a cable machine and a two-handled rope. While facing the machine grab the rope and step back until you’re supporting the weight with your arms extended. Your legs should give you a solid base with soft knees.

Retract your scapulae (squeeze your shoulder blades together), pull the rope towards you so the center of the rope goes toward your face. Now you understand the name of the exercise. You don’t literally hit your face with the rope. At the midpoint of the movement, externally rotate your arms. Think about pulling the rope apart, not just backwards. Hold for a beat and slowly reverse to finish the repetition. It’s imperative to use a controlled tempo with this exercise. You’ll be using lighter weights again. Remember, these shoulder muscles you’re working are relatively small. You want to avoid involving the lower back to move the weight. Keep your elbows nice and high, close to parallel with your shoulders.

For reps and sets, 1-3 sets of 8-15 works.


Front Raises

Front raises work the anterior delt. They’re not a pulling exercise like the two previous ones. You can do them but they’re probably redundant as the front delt gets plenty of work with the press and if you’re already doing flat or incline bench presses.

The starting position for front raises is standing while holding the dumbbells at your sides. With only a slight bend in the elbows, raise the weights straight up in front of you until your elbows are about parallel with your shoulders. Once more (with feeling!), keep your core tight and control the weights as you raise and lower them.

Try 2-3 sets of 8-15 repetitions with about 30-60 seconds rest between sets.

There you go! Include these exercises in your training and you’ll build stronger, defined, healthier shoulders.

And for no particular reason other than why not, here’s a bonus exercise:

Push Press

The Barbell Push Press is similar to a press but it’s not strictly a shoulder movement. In fact, it’s a total body exercise. You create momentum intentionally here in order to work out developing power by using heavier weights. Since it’s a power movement, you want to keep the repetitions low, 1-5 is all you need. The number of sets can vary depending on your goals but 1-3 is good for most people.

It begins just like a barbell shoulder press. But to initiate the movement, you dip your hips and bend your knees slightly. Explosively extend them to get the weight moving up a little. Extend your arms up to keep driving up the weight fully. The end position is the same as a barbell shoulder press. Lower the weight under control. That’s one rep. Naturally, you can use dumbbells instead, if you prefer.

Thanks for reading! If you have any questions or comments, leave them below.